Theatre and Concert Hall Programmes

Venues in Ayrshire

1.  heron 1
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2.Heron2
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3. Heron 3
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5. Heron1
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5A. Heron1a
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6. Heron2
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7.  Heron3
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Heron4
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Heron5
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Patrick Heron

A Maclaurin Trust Touring Exhibition

1. Catalogue Cover, Patrick Heron, from the artist's studio.

2.   Catalogue, Patrick Heron, from the artist's studio.  Introduction and Exhibits.

3.   Catalogue, Patrick Heron, from the artist's studio.  Narrative

4.   Catalogue, Patrick Heron, from the artist's studio.Narrative

5.   Catalogue Illustration, Christmas Eve, 1951 Patrick Heron, from the artist's studio. oil on canvas. 1829 x 3048mm

5a.   Catalogue Illustration, Patrick Heron, from the artist's studio.

6.   Catalogue Illustration, Patrick Heron, from the artist's studio.

7.  Catalogue Illustration.  Market Place St. Ives: 1950 Oil on Canvas 91.5 x 30.5cm (Maclaurin Art Collection).




Introduction

The idea of presenting a retrospective exhibition of Patrick Heron's paintings was discussed with the artist some four years ago. Initial ideas were for an exhibition to tour to five or six venues in Scotland. Sadly, competing claims on the artist's time meant that our project could not be realised before the Association was disbanded.
Despite a very tight exhibition schedule in 1995, the artist has generously agreed to lend some 15 works for shows at the Lillie and Maclaurin Art Galleries.

Remarkably, there have been only three solo exhibitions of Heron's work in Scotland during a career which spans more than 45 years. In 1967, Richard Demarco held a retrospective exhibition in his Edinburgh Gallery, followed, in 1985, by a show of Gouaches at Edinburgh's Caledonian Club and in 1987 a more diverse exhibition at the Chessel Gallery. Now, we have an opportunity to see Heron's work on the West Coast of Scotland.
In choosing a sequence of paintings spanning over 40 years we try to illuminate the source of the artist's earliest inspiration, his later romance with colour and his subsequent return to more austere works as he embarks on his New Paintings

Acknowledgements

An exhibition of this quality cannot be realised without the support and cooperation of a variety of contributors.
The Maclaurin Trust is deeply indebted to the artist, Patrick Heron, who has generously loaned this body of works from his personal collection. His thoughtful approach to the selection of works has ensured a vibrant, varied but representative array of paintings has been made available to us.

We are grateful to Waddington Galleries Ltd. and, in particular, Sarah Tooley for supporting our project and interceding in the selection process. Without this assistance, and Sarah's uncompromising commitment to the artist's work the show could not have been assembled so quickly and effectively.

The Maclaurin Trust wishes to thank Janet Axten, Michelle Gower, Kenny Dixon, and Bill Anderson for their individual contributions to the project.

Finally, we are indebted to the Scottish Arts Council for their financial support of the exhibition.

The Exhibits

01 Market Place St. Ives: 1950 Oil on Canvas 91.5x30.5cm (Maclaurin Art Collection).

02 Long Black Painting - Two Masses: November 1959 Oil on Canvas 76.2 x 182.9cm

03 Tall Black and Ochre : 1959 Oil on.Canvas 121.9 x 55.9cm

04 Blues with Brown Area : December 1962 Oil on Canvas 76.2x101.6cm

05 Yellows in Red with Violet Edge : April 1965 Oil on Canvas 152.4 x 167.6cm

06 Small Orange with Deep Yellow and Lemon and Violet: 1969 Oil on Canvas 77.5x101.6cm

07 Dark Red with Scarlet and Venetian : 1972 Oil on Canvas 198.1 x 274.3cm

08 Red in Red with Green : April 1977 Oil on Canvas 121.9 x 76.2cm

09 Orange and Lemon with Small Violet: April - July 1977 Oil on Canvas 198.1 x 274.3cm

10 Long Cadmium with Ceruleum in Violet (Boycott): July - November 1977 Oil on Canvas 198.1 x 396.2cm

11 Manganese Blue with Spotted Red Arrow June 1982 Oil on Canvas 121.9 x 152.4cm

12 Sharp Garden Painting : June 1985 Oil on Canvas 96.5 x 121.9cm

13 25 July : 1990 Oil on Canvas 121.9 x 152.4cm

14 27 August: 1991  Oil on Canvas 121.9 x 152.4cm

15 April-9 July : 1992 Oil on Canvas 213.4 x 121.9cm

16 29 July: 1992 Oil on Canvas 213.4 x 121.9cm

The paintings are all on loan from the artist except number 1 which is drawn from the Maclaurin Art Collection, Ayr.

Exhibition Venues

Lillie Art Gallery, Station Road, Milngavie.
8 - 30th April, 1995 Monday - Friday I Oam - 5pm, Saturday & Sunday 1 - 5pm

Maclaurin Art Gallery,
Rozelle Park,
Ayr
I -24 July 1995
Monday - Saturday I Oam - 5pm,
Sunday 2 - 5pm


Exhibition organised by Mrs. Maclaurin's Trust
in association with the Artist and Waddington Galleries Ltd.     Subsidised by the Scottish Arts Council



Catalogue TextFrom the Artist's Studio Paintings by Patrick Heron

Patrick Heron is widely regarded as one of the leading abstract painters of his generation. A worthy successor to such luminaries as Ben Nicholson and Christopher Wood, his name is synonymous with the St. Ives School which has been in the vanguard of British painting for almost a century.

St. Ives had a long tradition as an artists' colony. In 1927 the St. Ives Society of Artists was founded. A group of liberal but traditional artists, they attracted Wilhelmina Barns Graham, Ben Nicholson and Barbara Hepworth to their membership. Peter Lanyon was a regular exhibitor with the group but he was also a disruptive influence. When disputes broke out over the treatment of abstract work in the group exhibitions, Lanyon established the Crypt Group which included Lanyon, Wynter and Wells. By 1948, when the group held their final exhibition, the show included paintings by Barns Graham and Patrick Heron. This grouping provided a nucleus for the rival Penwith Society of Artists which was established in 1949.

Here, in the extreme South Western corner of England, a British School of Abstract Painting was emerging from the new groupings. Patrick Heron was to become a leading artist of the group and, as a critic, was an articulate voice for the movement. Heron has argued that the work of this St. Ives group had been grossly undervalued. He pointed out that in the ten years from 1956 artists such as Davie, Lanyon, Scott and himself had a series of major exhibitions in New York and that British artists were participating equals in the vanguard of progressive art.

Patrick Heron was born in Headingley, Leeds, in 1920. Over the first ten years of his life his family lived in various parts of Cornwall before settling in Welwyn Garden City in 1929. He was encouraged to draw and paint by his father, who ran Cresta Silks and was a friend of artists such as Paul Nash, Stanley Spencer and Frederick Gore. Cresta Silks employed Paul Nash and Cedric Morris as designers and the young Heron soon had opportunities to contribute to the company's output.

At the age of 17 Patrick Heron became a part-time student at the Slode School of Fine Art. His studies were overtaken by the war and, as a conscientious objector, Heron spent four years as an agricultural labourer. The final year of the war was passed as an assistant at Bernard Leach's Pottery in St. Ives. Returning to painting in the immediate post war years, he made a significant mark as a writer and critic.

Patrick Heron has suggested that British culture in the 30's was totally dominated by literature; a culture that was indifferent to the whole of modern art. Access to art was limited and the emerging schoolboy had to content himself with poor colour reproductions of the living French artists as a source of inspiration in his formative years. His earliest paintings showed a variety of influences including Cezanne, Sickert and Derain. His great interest and enthusiasm was for French painting and so many of his earliest works have a French aspect. The opportunity to see a key work by Matisse, Red Studio", exhibited in the Redfern Gallery for a number of months in 1943 had a profound influence on the developing artist. Returning to view the painting time and again. Heron absorbed the essence of the work and applied it to his painting produced in that year. In the late 40's he was greatly impressed by an exhibition of Braque's work at the Tate Gallery. The following year he visited Braque's studio and found an inspiration which was to mould and infuse his work for the next 45 years.

Heron, in a public lecture, has suggested that the basic rhythms, the fundamental patterns which link all thecolourshapes we eventually recognise as being most typical of a painter are possibly established - even if they are somewhat disguised - at a very early stage in his career. In this exhibition we can see how this nascent imagery is developed and refined by one of our most outstanding contemporary painters.

The 1950 painting, Market Square St. Ives, reflects the influence of Braque. Already, Heron has established a basic procedure which involves the application of pure colours painted in a single layer on the white canvas. The typical works of this period (1949 - 54) exhibit a complexity which disappears in later paintings. In a description of these works, the artist refers to their very pronounced linear qualities. . . .complex linear grids or networks - both overt and implied... with lines of drawing weaving themselves over and under, around or behind, blobs or planes or scribbled areas of pure colour. The French quality of these works set Heron, and some of his close friends and supporters, apart from the mainstream pictorial preoccupation of the London painters who embraced pictorial realism or neo-Romanticism.

In the later 1950's an evolutionary process began. Heron broke with figuration and experimented with a series of canvases with pronounced vertical elements. Progressing from separate calligraphic brush strokes he retreated into quieter coloured planes parallel to the picture surface. This change coincided with a move to Zennor, close to Land's End and must have been, in some respects a response to the quality of the maritime light. The end of the decade saw a series of atmospheric paintings; they still embody a series of horizontal stripes but many take on a landscape quality which might bare comparison with the maritime works of Emil Nolde

These atmospheric paintings are represented by Long Black Painting - Two Masses : November 1959 and Tall Black and Ochre : 1959.

Gradually, the stripes are subsumed into broad colour areas and, eventually, works with a single coloured ground. Initially.these were inhabited by disks or rough circular shapes. Then, by 1964, we note the first appearance of Heron's little harbour shape, a rectangle with a disk of the ground colour which is breaking through one of the edges of that rectangle. This simple device was to become a recurring theme over the next 25 years or more. This innovation car be seen in Yellows in Red with Violet Edge: April 1965, although at this point it is already mellowing, with less formality, as the shapes acquire wavy, irregular edges.

This preoccupation with colour ground, inhabited by a variety of amorphous shapes dominates Heron's work for a number of years before he returns to the calligraphic new paintings of the 90's. It is interesting to contrast his preoccupations with those of Bridget Riley who abandoned all thoughts of colour for several years while she experimented with the optical qualities of monochrome patterns and lines.

Strangely, when Riley returns to the use of colour in the 70's she employs precisely the characteristics that Heron notes in his article Colour in my Painting 1969. He writes, .... the meeting-lines between areas of colour are utterly crucial to our apprehension of the actual hue of those areas: the linear character of these frontiers cannot avoid changing our sensation of the colour of those areas. Hence, a jagged line separating two reds will make them cooler or hotter, pinker or more orange, than a smooth looping or rippling line. The line changes the colour of the colours on either side of it. This being so, it follows that it is the linear character that I give to the frontiers between colour areas that finally determines the apparent colour of my colours. Here the author is not referring to actual drawn lines but the boundaries of frontiers of adjacent coloured shapes. So, in effect the calligraphic elements of the earlier works persist as zones of transition, so adding to the mystery of the painting.

Heron has explained the process of creating these monumental works. Speaking of Long Cadmium with Ceruleum in Violet (Boycott): July - November 1977, he explains, for the benefit of an American audience, that Boycott was the greatest living batsman and a fellow Yorkshireman. As the painter begins to work, the radio plays and he realises that Boycott is at the crease about to open an English innings which will lead to victory over the Australians. Working with his tiny Japanese watercolour brush, beginning at the bottom lefthand corner, the artist commences a marathon application of cadmium red paint which will take nine hours without a break. To stop for a little as^five minutes would result in minimal drying leaving a sort of water-line edge like tidal debris on a sandy beach. He draws a parallel between the prowess and stamina of the sportsman and the physical demands on the artist.

This modest exhibition celebrates a lifetime of achievement. The images are challenging but repay calm and careful contemplation. The observer must explore the boundaries within the work and sense the tensions they product; ask not what they mean, but engage with the artist's joy of .colour and the drawn line.


Patrick Heron Biography

1920 Born 30th January, Headingley, Leeds 1925 - 29 Lived near Newlyn and Lelant, Zennor
and St Ives, Cornwall, before moving
to Welwyn Garden City, Hertfordshire,
September 1929 1934 Designed first silk square for Cresta Silks,
London 1937 - 39 Part-time student at Slade School of
Fine Art, London 1940 - 44 Agricultural labourer, Cambridge and
Welwyn Garden City
1944 - 45 Assistant at Bernard Leach's Pottery, St. Ives
1945 Moved to London after marriage to
Delia Reiss; resumed painting 1945 - 47 Art Critic for The New English Weekly
Annual visits to St. Ives, until 1954 1947 First Solo Exhibition
Series of Talks on Contemporary Art
commissioned by the B.B.C. Third
Programme, London
Art critic for The New Statesman and
Nation (until 1950; further contributions
to 1955) 1950 - 54 Occasional Reviews in Art News &
Review 1953 - 56 Taught at Central School of Arts and
Crafts, London
1955 London Correspondent for Arts Digest (later Arts, New York)
1956 Moved to present home Eagles Nest,
Zennor, Cornwall 1958 Resigned from Arts (New York)
Took over Ben Nicholson's Studio at
Porthmeor, St. Ives
Mural Panel commissioned for London Offices of Percy Lund
Humphries
Awarded the Grand Prize
(International Jury) in the 2nd John
Moores Liverpool Exhibition, Walker
Art Gallery
Awarded the Silver Medal at VIII
Bienal de Sao Paulo, lectured in Sao
Paulo, Brasilia and Rio de Janiero
Visited Australia, lecturing in Perth
and Sydney
The Shape of Colour, Power Lecture
in Contemporary Art, delivered in
Sydney, Brisbane, Canberra,
Melbourne, Adelaide and Perth
Awarded the C.B.E.
The Colour of Colour, E. William Doty
Lectures in Fine Art, delivered at
University of Texas at Austin
Patrick and Delia Heron made honorary citizens of Texas by order of the Secretary of State for Texas "The Shapes of Colour. 1943 -1978", book of screenprints, Kelpra Editions, Waddingtons and Tooth Graphics Commissioned to design two carpets for foyer of the Cavendish Hotel. London
Trustee of the Tate Gallery, London Commissioned to design tapestry for University of Galway, Eire Hon. D. Lift., University of Exeter Appeared in Patrick Heron, B.B.C. Omnibus directed by Colin Nears, 13 March
Appeared in Painting the Warmth of the Sun, a T.S.W. production for Channel Four, directed by Kevin Crook, 7, 8 & 9 April
1986 Hon. D. Litt., University of Kent
Appeared in South Bank Show: Patric, Heron, an L.W.T. production directed by John Read, 9th February
1987 Hon. Doctorate, Royal College of Art, London
1988 Visited Moscow and Leningrad on behalf of the Tate Gallery, London
1989 Hon. Ph.D. CNAA, Winchester School of Art
1989 Visited Japan to lecture at the opening of St. Ives exhibition, Setagaya Art Museum, Tokyo Made second visit to Moscow and Leningrad on behalf of the Tate Gallery, London
1989 - 90 Artist in Residence, Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney
1990 - 93 Two Tapestries made from Sydney gouaches by Victorian Workshop, Melbourne
1991 Visiting Artist, International Art Workshop, North Otago, New Zealand Honorary FRIBA
Designed nine silk banners for the Tate Gallery bookshop, London
1992 Designed stained glass window for the Tate Gallery, St. Ives (official opening June 1993) Designed three silk banners for Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London
Designed Kneeler to encircle Henry Moore altar at St. Stephen Walbrook, London
1993 Honorary Fellow of Bretton Hall College, University of Leeds
Solo Exhibitions
Redfern Gallery, London
Downing's Bookshop, St. Ives
Redfern Gallery, London
Redfern Gallery, London
Bristol City Art Gallery
Redfern Gallery, London
City Art Gallery, Wakefield; touring to University Galleries,
Leeds; Bankfield Museum, Halifax; Scarborough Art
Gallery; Ferens Art Gallery, Hull; Midland Group Gallery,
Nottingham (retrospective)
Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford
II Bienai de Sao Paulo, Brazil; touring South America
Redfern Gallery, London
Simon Quinn Gallery, Huddersfield
Redfern Gallery, London
Redfern Gallery, London
Bertha Schaefer Gallery, New York
Waddington Galleries, London
Bertha Schaefer Gallery, New York
Grinell College, Grinell, Iowa
Waddington Galleries, London
Galerie Charles Lienhard, Zurich
Waddington Galleries, London
Bertha Schaefer Gallery, New York
Hume Tower, Edinburgh
(with Bryan Wynter)
VIII Bienai de Sao Paulo, (representing Great Britain with
Victor Pasmore); touring to Rio de Janeiro; Buenos Aires;
Santiago; Lima; Caracas
Dawson Gallery, Dublin
Richard Demarco Gallery, Edinburgh (retrospective)
Kunstnernes Hus, Oslo (retrospective)
Waddington Galleries, London
Museum of Modern Art, Oxford (retrospective
Waddington Galleries, London
Park Square Art Gallery, Leeds
Bear Lane Gallery, Oxford (gouaches and graphics)
Waddington Fine Arts, Montreal
1970
1972
1973
1974
1975
1977
1978
1979
1981
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990 and
1990
Mazelow Gallery, Toronto
Rudy Komon Gallery, Sydney; touring Australia
Waddington Galleries, London
Waddington Galleries, London (graphics)
Gallery Caballa, Harrogate Festival of Arts and Sciences
Whitechapel Art Gallery, London (partial retrospective)
Waddington Galleries, London (graphics)
Hester van Royen Gallery, London
Bonython Art Gallery, Paddington, New South Wales
Midland Art Centre, Birmingham
Skinner Galleries, Perth Western Australia
Prints of Prince Street, New York
Waddington Galleries, London
Rutland Gallery, London
Festival of Bath
Galerie Le Balcon des Arts, Paris (with Terry Frost)
Waddington & Tooth Galleries, London (gouaches)
University of Texas, Austin Art Museum (retrospective)
Bennington College, Vermont (graphics)
Waddington Galleries, London
Oriel Gallery, Cardiff
Riverside Studios, London
Waddington Galleries, London
Abbot Hall Art Gallery, Kendal
Castlefield Art Gallery, Manchester
Arcade Gallery, Harrogate
Barbican Art Gallery, London (retrospective)
Newiyn Art Gallery, Cornwall
Caledonian Gallery, Edinburgh (gouaches)
Northern Centre for Contemporary Art, Sunderland
New Grafton Gallery, London (with Ivon Hitchens)
Waddington Galleries, London
Oxford Gallery, Oxford (gouaches)
Chessel Gallery, Moray House College, Edinburgh
Plymouth Art Centre (gouaches)
Jersey Arts Centre, St. Helier
Waddington Galleries, London (gouache retrospective)
Art Gallery of New South Wales, ("Sydney" paintings
gouaches)
Rex Irwin, Woollahra, New South Wales, ("Sydney"
paintings and gouaches)
1991
1992 1994 Gallery,
1995
Waddington Galleries, London ("Sydney" paintings and gouaches 1989 - 90 and related works) Waddington Galleries, London Camden Arts Centre, London; touring to Arnolfini
Bristol; Harris Museum and Art Gallery, Preston (Patrick Heron : Big Paintings 1994) Bodilly Galleries, Cambridge Oxford Gallery, Oxford (gouaches)
Public Collections (British)
Aberdeen Art Gallery
Maclaurin Art Gallery, Ayr
Cecil Higgins Art Gallery, Bedford
C.E.M.A., Belfast
Bristol City Art Gallery
Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge
Eliot College, University of Kent, Canterbury
National Museum of Wales, Cardiff
Bishop Otter College, Chichester
Towner Art Gallery, Eastbourne
Scottish National Portrait Gallery, Edinburgh
Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, Edinburgh
Exeter Art Gallery
Cornwall House, Exeter University
Abbot Hall Art Gallery, Kendal
Leeds City Art Gallery
Leicester Education Committee, Leicester
Arts Council of Great Britain, London
British Broadcasting Corporation, London
British Council, London
British Museum, London
Contemporary Art Society, London
Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, London
National Portrait Gallery, London
Shell-Mex, London
Peter Stuyvesant Foundation, London
Tate Gallery, London
Victoria and Albert Museum, London
Granada Television, Manchester
Manchester City Art Gallery, (Rutherston Collection)
Hatton Gallery, Newcastle University Norwich Castle Museum Oldham Art Gallery Merton College, Oxford Pembroke College, Oxford New College, Oxford St. John's College, Oxford Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford Nuffield College, Oxford Plymouth City Art Gallery Southampton Art Gallery University of Stirling Wakefield City Art Gallery University of Warwick
Public Collections (International)
University of Galway, Eire
Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, Lisbon
Boymans-van Beuningen Museum, Rotterdam
Peter Stuyvesant Foundation, Amsterdam
Art Gallery of Western Australia, Perth
Power Gallery of Contemporary Art, Sydney University
Queensland Art Gallery, Brisbane
Art Gallery of South Australia, Adelaide
Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney
Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto
London Art Gallery, Ontario
Montreal Museum of Fine Arts
Musee d'Art Contemporain, Montreal
Vancouver Art Gallery
Setagaya Art Museum, Tokyo
Ohnishi Museum, Kogawa Prefecture
Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York
Brooklyn Museum, New York
Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Museum of Art, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Smith College Museum of Art,Northampton, Massachusetts
Art Museum, University of Texas at Austin
Toledo Museum of Art, Ohio
Frederick R Weisman Foundation, Los Angeles
Yale Center for British Art, New Haven Connecticut
Lillie Art Gallery, Station Road, Milngavie.
8 - 30th April, 1995 Monday - Friday I Oam - 5pm, Saturday & Sunday 1 - 5pm
Maclaurin Art Gallery,
Rozelle Park,
Ayr
I -24 July 1995
Monday - Saturday I Oam - 5pm,
Sunday 2 - 5pm
Exhibition organised by Mrs. Maclaurin's Trust
in association with the Artist and Waddington Galleries Ltd.
Subsidised by the Scottish Arts Council
Patrick Heron
From the Artist's Studio